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The Koran or Qur'an (the latter spelling is more phonetically accurate) is the holy book of Islam. It is divided into 114 sūrahs (chapters), from the longest to the shortest approximately. The Qur'an contains prescriptions for belief in one God, laws to guide life, praise of God and instructions for mankind.

The Qur'an, taken literally, is a creationist book, in a sense that it specifies the act of creation, but Creation [khalaq] is portrayed as something done 'in stages' and can be 'witnessed' by humans. It speaks of Ādam (Adam) and 'his partner' (the name 'Hawa' or 'Eve' is not mentioned anywhere in the Qur'an) as the first parents of all mankind, but it also claims that all humans, not just Adam, are created from various ingredients (dirt, blood, water, clay, dust etc.) There is also mention of the flood of Nūḥ (Noah), although the latter is often not considered to be a worldwide flood. The Qur'an declares mankind to be a special creation of God. Since mainstream Islam is influenced by the Judeo-Christian view of creation, opposition to evolution in Islamic countries is high. Nevertheless, the Islamic world has its share of theistic evolutionists, who read evolution into the Qur'an; for example, one verse that says Allah created all living creatures out of water is read as supportive of evolution; another verse challenges mankind to observe 'creation of the camel' which can be interpreted to mean that creation can be studied scientifically. As for the Age of the Earth, geological time scales do not disturb the Muslim conception of creation. The topic is less important than in Christianity, there being no issue of death before the Fall in Islam. Thus, Old Earth Creationism is common among Muslims. However, many arguments of Islamic creationists are modelled after the Christian young-earth creationism kind, with an emphasis mainly against human evolution.

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