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Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is one of the four macromolecules important for life. DNA is the principal component of chromosomes, and hence genes and is described as the molecule of heredity. In eukaryotic cells DNA is found in the nucleus as chromosomes, in prokaryotic cells DNA is found in the cytoplasm, usually as circular strands.
Each DNA molecule consists of thousands of units, which in turn consist of:
- Sugar-phosphate backbone:
- An organic base, one of: adenine (A), thymine (T), cytosine (C), and guanine (G).
These units repeat thousands of times to form a polynucleotide. Adenine is able to form intermolecular bonds with thymine, and cytosine with guanine and in this way two polynucleotide chains join together with opposing A-T and G-C pairs to form a double helix.
To Do List
- Role: Codons, gene expression etc
- 'Junk' DNA
- Brief history